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ISSN: 1075-4644

GLOBAL SURVEY  Vol. 52  No. 522  January 2022




This 17th revised edition is designed to provide accurate and useful information on the subject matter covered. Every reasonable effort is made to include current data from authoritative sources and verify its accuracy.



Talks about Transdniestria by Moldova, Transdniestria, Russia, Ukraine, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and Observers of the European Union (EU) and the United States of America.


European Union (EU)-Arab Maghreb Union (UMA) informal group formed 1990. See Dialogue 5+5.



Dignitary, incl. members of the royal family, judiciary, and politicians who have the right to be tried for crimes at a higher court (Spain).


Residence of the President of Pakistan in Islamabad.

Akasaka Palace

Chief residence of the Japanese emperor in Tokyo.

Ak Orda Presidential Palace (Ak Orda ‘the White Horde’ – Akorda)

Official residence of the President of Kazakhstan in Nursultan (Astana).

Ak Saray (White Palace)

New residence of the President of Turkey on the grounds of the Atatürk Forest Farm (AOÇ) in the Beştepe neighborhood of Ankara, completed in 2015.

Ala-Archa (Juniper Park)

Name of the state residence of the president of Kyrgyzstan and of the national park, located about 40 km south of the capital.


Icelandic parliament in Reykjavik.

Alvorado Palace

Official residence of the Brazilian president in Brasília.


Practice of hiring retired civil servants as heads of public corporations (Japanese).

Andean Group

Regional group formed on 26 May 1969.

Arg Palace

Former royal palace in central Kabul. Seat of the presidency and presidential residence.

Axis of Evil#

Term used by US President George W. Bush in the State of Union Address on 28 January 2002 encompassing Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Libya, and North Korea—see also “countries of concern” and “rogue countries.”


back bench, back bencher

Members of British and Commonwealth parliaments seated in the rear, i.e. members who do not belong to the cabinet or shadow [opposition] cabinet. See also front bench.

Bahasa Indonesia

Malay language of Indonesia.

Bahasa Malaysia

Malay language of Malaysia.


Center of government in Vienna where offices of the president (Hofburg) and the federal chancellor are located.

Baltic States

Political reference to Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Geographically, the group includes all countries bordering on the Baltic Sea.


Residential section of northern Kathmandu and location of the official residence of the prime minister. Colloquially used as synonym for government and prime minister.

Bamboo Curtain#

Reference analogous to Iron Curtain and formerly applied to China and the southeast Asian communist-ruled states of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.


President’s House in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Barcelona Process

Partnership between the European Union (EU) and 12 countries south of the Mediterranean Sea.

Basman Palace

Royal palace of the King of Jordan in Amman. The Bab al Salaam Palace is located outside Amman. Raghadan Palace is a royal residence in Amman.

Belaya Vezha, Belovezhye Accord

Agreement among Stanislav S. Shuskhevich (Belarus), Boris N. Yel’tsin (Russia), and Leonid M. Kravchuk (Ukraine) who met at the Belaya Vezha hunting lodge near Brest on 7-8 December 1991 to establish the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

Bellevue Castle (Schloss Bellevue)

Residence of Federal President of Federal Republic of Germany at Spreeweg 1, Tiergarten district, in Berlin (since 1994).

Belt and Road

Initiative of the People’s Republic of China of 28 March 2015 to enhance infrastructure links and regional connectivity with Central Asia, Europe, and Russia.

Belvedere (Belweder) Palace

Official residence of the Polish president in Warsaw.


Reference to French finance ministry located at 139 rue de Bercy in Paris (12).

Berlin Wall#

Barrier erected on 17 August 1963 by the East German government between East and West Berlin to prevent commuting and defections from East Berlin. When the East German travel ban was lifted on 9 November, Berliners from both sides began tearing down parts of the wall shortly after midnight.


Location of the official residence of the President of Iceland on Alftanes peninsula, outside Reykjavik. The estate is the former residence of the Danish governor. The president’s office is located on Laekjargata.


Ankara District where the Turkish presidential complex is located.


Non-citizen, especially in Kuwait (Arabic).

Big Brother#

Informal reference used in communist Eastern Europe to the Soviet Union.

Big Four#

Major allies in World War 2: Britain, France, Soviet Union and the United States.

Big Four

The world’s four major oil enterprises: BP-Amoco, Exxon Mobil, Shell, and Total-Fina. Formerly part of Seven Sisters.

Big Man

Commonly used in Africa to refer to the boss and especially to the authoritarian head of a country.

Big Three#

Major allies in World War 2: Britain, Soviet Union and the United State, also G-3.

Bina Graha

Office of the Indonesian president in Jakarta.


In Europe, Christian conservative party or member thereof, also a Catholic.

blood diamonds, see Kimberley Process

BLS States

Three land-locked states bordering on South Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland.


In Austria, right-wing nationalist parties.

Blue Helmets

United Nations peacekeeping forces.

Blue House (Cheong Wa Dae)

Official residence of the South Korean president in Seoul.

Blue states

US states in which citizens vote predominantly for the Democratic Party; see also Red states.

Bocharov Ruchei

Government residence at the Sochi  Black Sea resort, Russia.

Bonn/Berlin process

International year-long effort initiated by the German federal government to suggest ways to strengthen the capacity to implement arms embargoes, travel and aviation-related sanctions by the United Nations (UN) and member states.

Brezhnev Doctrine#

Formulated in 1968 by then President Leonid Brezhnev (1906-1982) declaring that “socialism is indivisible, and its defense is the common cause of all Communists,” i.e., a socialist country cannot leave the communist bloc.

Buckingham Palace

Royal Palace of the Queen of England in London.


Sons of the soil, i.e. native Malays of peninsular Malaysia (Malay).


Federal chancellor, i.e. head of government in Austria and Germany, head of the administrative office of the government in Switzerland.


Swiss Federal Council (i.e., government executive).


Upper house of parliament in Austria and Germany.


German parliament (lower house) in Bonn.

bu zheteng

Do not get sidetracked, see Three Don’ts (Chinese)



Format for dialog between the five Central Asian states (formerly part of the Soviet Union) and the United States of America, launched on 1 November 2015 by the US.

cabinet meeting

Regular or extraordinary session of government ministers to discuss and decide on matters of state. Some governments hold periodic meetings, such as   

            France: Council of Ministers, every Wednesday, except during summer vacation,

            at 10 o’clock, chaired by the president.          

            Russia: Council of Ministers, every Tuesday, held in the Kremlin.    

            Russia: President holds meeting of the Security Council every Saturday on

            foreign and domestic policy in the Kremlin.


Local party boss (Mexico).


Community of Muslims led by a supreme religious (and political) leader (khila’afa, Arabic).

Cámara de Diputados

Mexican Chamber of Deputies in Mexico City.

Camera dei Deputati

Italian Chamber of Deputies in Rome.

Çankaya Mansion

Former residence of the Turkish President, 6 km south of downtown Ankara. See Ak Saray.

Carnation Revolution#

Bloodless “Revolution of Carnations” carried out on 25 April 1974 by progressive officers ending civilian dictatorship in Portugal. So named because of the jubilant crowds who handed out carnations to the military.

Carondelet Palace

Official residence of the Ecuadorian President, located in Quito.

Carthage Palace

The Palace of the Republic is the official residence of the President of Tunisia, located in Carthage, 15 kilometers from the capital of Tunis.

Casa Rosada

Official residence of the Argentine president in Buenos Aires.


Seat of the government in Accra, Ghana.

Caucasus Four, Caucasian Four

Informal designation of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, and Russia.

Central Powers#

Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Turkey in World War 1. See also Entente.

Černin Palace

Seat of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Czech Republic in Hradcany, Prague.


Large family-controlled conglomerates in Korea.


Nickname for the seat of the Council of Ministers of the European Union on avenue Charlemagne in Brussels, Belgium.

Chaudhry, Chouhry, Chaudhari, Chowdhury

Village leader (Bangladesh, India).


Urban management officials Chinese).

Chevening House

Residence of the British foreign secretary in Kent.

Chigi Palace

Official residenceof the Italian prime mininister in Piazza Colonna, Rome, also the seat of he Council of Ministers (i.e., the Cabinet).


Offices of the President of the Republic of Korea (ROK).


Seat of Danish parliament in Copenhagen.

Chrysanthemum Throne

Reference to the Emperor of Japan.

chuch’e (chuch’e sasang)

Unitary ideology of North Korea (since April 1974), i.e. self-reliance.

CIS-7 countries

The seven poorest countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2003: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

City (The City)

British financial district in London.


Clinton Doctrine

It holds that the international community has an obligation to violate the principle of state sovereignty to protect the rights of a persecuted minority (USA).

Club of Rome

Informal group of business leaders, politicians, and scientists formed 1968 to advance social justice and harmony with the environment.

Company (The Company)

Nickname for the US Central Intelligence Agency.

Composite Dialogue Process (CDP)

Process agreed upon by India and Pakistan in 1997 to hold talks on eight-point agenda: economic and commercial cooperation, friendly exchanges, Kashmir, peace and security, Siachen glacier, Sir Creek, terrorism and drug trafficking, and Wullar barrage. Talks were interrupted in 1998 and resumed in December 2004.

Coral Triangle

A 5.7 million km2 maritime conservation area east of the South China Sea, south of the Philippine Sea, and north of Australia encompassing eastern Indonesia, parts of Malaysia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Timor Leste and the Solomon Islands.


Spanish parliament in Madrid.

Cotroceni Palace

Seat of Romanian president in Bucharest.

countries of concern

US Government term for Iran, Iraq, Libya, and North Korea, formerly called rogue countries. See also “Axis of Evil.”

Cultural Revolution#

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was launched by Mao Zedong (1893-1976) on 2 September 1965 to counter the moderate government of Liu Shao-ch’i and Deng Xiaoping. It was approved by the 11th Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party on 8 August 1966 and Red Guards were created to destroy old authority. The campaign was formally ended by the 9th Party Congress in 1969.



Irish House of Representatives in Dublin.


Basic unit of a collective (Chinese).

Dear Leader

Adulatory address of North Korean leader Kim Chong-il.

Deauville Partnership

Platform with Arab Countries in Transition established at the 37th summit of the Group of Eight (G8) on 26-27 May 2011 in Deauville, Calvados Department, France

Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR)

Indonesian House of Representatives in Jakarta.

Dewan Rakyat

Malaysian House of Representatives in Kuala Lumpur.

Dialogue 5+5

Five representatives each of the European Union (EU) and North African countries advancing closer cooperation: France, Italy, Malta, Portugal, and Spain; Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. (First summit held on 4-6 December 2003 in Tunis.) See also 5+5.

doi moi

Vietnamese police of renovation, adopted by Vietnamese Communist Party (VCP) in December 1986 as economic reform program.

Dolgiye Borody

Residence of President Vladimir Putin near Lake Valdai, 386 km north of Moscow.

Domino Effect, Domino Theory#

Assumption, especially favored by US political and military leaders in the 1960s, that if then South Vietnam would fall to the communists, the neighboring countries of Southeast Asia would succumb likewise.


Reorganization of local administrative system of Japan (Japanese).

Downing Street, 10

Location of official residence and office of the British prime minister in London.

Dublin Group

Group of Asian, European and  North American governments specializing in problems of narcotics production and trafficking.


State Duma, Russian federal parliament.


E3 states

France, Germany and the United Kingdom when addressing Iran’s nuclear program

East River

Location of UN Headquarters in New York NY.


Finnish parliament in Helsinki.

Elysée Palais

Official residence of the French president in rue du Faubourg-Saint Honoré, Paris since 1873.

            Fort Brégançon: Summer residence of French presidents on the Mediterranean

            coast, about  20 km east of Hyères, since 13 January 1968.

            Château de Rambouillet: Country residence of the French president and guest

            house for visiting heads of state since 1896, 35 km southwest of Paris in

            Yvelines Department.

            Château de Versailles, Yvelines Department: Used for state functions and

houses the presidents of the French National Assembly and the Senate. On the

grounds is the Pavillon de la Lanterne, an 18th century secluded hunting lodge

along the road from Versailles to Saint-Cyr-l'École. It is a favorite hideaway of

the current president and has served as country home of French prime ministers.

            le Domaine de Souzy-la-Briche: Alternate residence of the French president

            since 1978, about 30 km south of Paris in Essene Department.


Council of the Entente formed on 29 May 1959.


The Allies—France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United States of America (USA)—in World War 1. See also Central Powers.

ethnic cleansing

Forcible removal, murder, of an ethnic group and its members from home, territory, and country by the government or an authority of another group, by all means.

European Economic Area European Free Trade Agreement (EEA EFTA) States

Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway

exception culturelle

Cultural exclusion claimed by France from open market provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) for audio-visual and literary works to protect the country’s culture from being overwhelmed or diluted by foreign works, especially American movies and music (French).



Location of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Rome.

al-Fatih Revolution

Start of the current Libyan regime following the overthrow of the monarch on 1 September (al-fatih) 1969.

Fed (The Fed)

Federal Reserve Bank (System) (USA).

Feds (The Feds)

The federal government, the federal civil servants (USA).

First World

The industrialized countries, developed countries.

Five Peoples of China

Han, Manchu, Mongolians, Hui, and Tibetans.

Fleet Street

Location of most prominent British newspaper and press offices in London.

Foggy Bottom

Nickname for the US Department of State referring to its location in a formerly foggy and swampy area near the Potomac River. See also Fudge Factory.


Danish parliament in Copenhagen.

Four amigos

Leaders of Canada, Chile, Mexico, and the United States. (Reference made by Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien on 10 December 1994 in Miami FL, on the occasion of inviting Chile to join NAFTA.

Four Dragons

The new industrial Asian countries of Hong Kong, Korea (ROK), Singapore, and Taiwan; also Four Tigers.

Four Tigers

Same as Four Dragons.

Fourth Estate

The press.

Fragile Five

Financial circle reference to the five member states of BRICS: Brazil, India, Russia, China, and South Africa (2014).

friends, the

Informal reference to the US Central Intelligence Agency, used by British intelligence .

front bench, front bencher

Members of the cabinet or shadow [opposition] cabinet who are seated in the front row in British and Commonwealth parliaments. See also back bench.

Front States#

African states opposed to white South African government and apartheid policy.

Fudge Factory

Nickname for the US Department of State. See also Foggy Bottom.



The five permanent members of the UN Security Council and Germany conducting nuclear talks with Iran. See P5+1.


Traditional courts in Rwanda, conducting trials of suspects of genocide since March 2005.

Gandhi principles of non-violence

Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) declared his principles were satya,  i.e. truth, and ahimsa, i.e. non-violence. See satyagraha.

Gao kao

Annual national college entrance examination in China (Chinese).


Russian term for openness or transparency. Essential part of policy of economic and political reforms, first introduced by Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachov on 28 June 1988.


Greater integration of countries into the world economy, internationalism in economy.


Government-organized nongovernmental organization.


ecological, environmental

Green Tree Agreement (GTA)

Treaty between Cameroon and Nigeria concluded on 12 June 2006 at Greentree, New York, ceding the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon.


Doing business based on relationships rather than by formal rules (Chinese).


Haga Palace

Official residence of the Crown Princess of Sweden in Hagaparken, Solna, Stockholm.

Hallstein Doctrine#

Foreign policy principle expressed by Walter Hallstein, (1901-1982) Foreign Minister of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in 1955 not to open or maintain diplomatic relations with any country that maintains such ties with the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Abandoned in 1972.

Harambee House

Seat of the President of Zimbabwe in Harare.


Former location of the German Federal Defense Ministry in Bonn.


Network of informal banking (Arabic).

Helsinki Accords

Final Act on Security and Cooperation in Review, signed 1975 in Helsinki (CSCE).

Helsinki process

Regular review of arms control, human rights, environment and other issues (CSCE).


Survivor of 1945 US atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japanese).


The Hindu Way, politico-religious concept of Indian parties advocating India to shed secularism and adopt the Hindu religion as state religion.


Seat of Austrian president in Vienna.

Holyrood Palace

Residence of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Holy See (The Holy See)

The Vatican or Papal State in Rome, Italy.

Hôtel de Lassay

Residence of the President of the French National Assembly on the rue de l’Université in Paris.

Hradcany Castle

Residence of the President of the Czech Republic in Prague.

Huis ten Bosch

Royal Dutch residence in Amsterdam.


Household registration system in China (Chinese)


The legislature of Mongolia in Ulaanbaatar.


Iavolcha State Palace

Seat of the President of Madagascar, located 15 km south of Antananarivo.

indigenous people

Descendants of those who inhabited land which was then taken over by people from a different ethnic origin (UN definition).

Inner Line (India)

Established by the British in 1873 inside the external northern border beneath the foothills of the Himalaya. Entry into the zone between the “inner” and “outer” (i.e., international boundary) by non-Indian nationals requires special permission.

Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC)

Standard used by the United Nations (UN) to classify levels of food insecurity:

            1 Generally food secure;

            2 Moderately/borderline food insecure;

            3 Acute food and livelihood crisis;

4 Humanitarian emergency—severe lack of food access, death due to hunger, malnutrition and irreversible livestock asset stripping;

5 Famine or humanitarian catastrophe—complete lack of food access and mass starvation, death, and displacement.


French term for integrationism, used especially in Algeria and Tunisia, to describe proposals for peaceful dialog with militant Muslims leading to their full integration into national society.


Palestinian uprising against Israeli occupation (9 December 1987-September 1993, September 2000-current al-Aqsa intifada).

Iron Curtain#

The physical dividing line between the former Soviet Union and its European satellite states first so described by Winston Churchill (1874-1965) in a speech on 5 March 1946 in Fulton, Missouri.


Islamic movement to reestablish the Caliphate or an Islamic polity.


Brazilian foreign ministry and foreign service (named after its former palace location in Rio de Janeiro).


Iranian intelligence service.

Ittihadiya Palace

Official residence of the Egyptian president in Cairo.


Jaburu Palace

Official residence of the Brazilian vice president in Brasília.

al-Janadriyah Farm

Arabian horse farm and country retreat of the king of Saudi Arabia, located at al-Janadriyah, 45 km outside Riyadh.

Jatiya Sangsad

Parliament of Bangladesh in Dhaka.

Jogorku Kenesh

Parliament of Kyrgyzstan in Bishkek.



Office of the Japanese prime minister.

Kanzlerbungalow (Chancellor Bungalow)#

Former residence of the Federal Chancellor of Germany in Bonn (1963-1998).

karo-kari, also siyah-kari

Code of honor killing (Pakistan).


Death from overwork (Japanese).


Network of subcontractors and suppliers of a larger enterprise, usually fully or partially owned (Japanese).


Executive at regional, district and city level (Uzbekistan).


Enough” (Arabic), the slogan of an Egyptian movement protesting the renomination of the incumbent Egyptian president for a 5th term of office in 2005.

Kimberley Process

The process to certify the origin of rough diamonds which were not mined in areas of rebel movements—mainly in Africa, to fund human rights abuses and wars, the so-called blood diamonds. The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was established by the United Nations in 2003


Campaign in Uganda to allow third presidential term.


Israeli parliament in Jerusalem.


Japanese Diet in Tokyo.


Bloc, coalition (Arabic)

Krasnopresnensakaya Naberezhnaya

Seat of Soviet Council of Ministers in Moscow.

Kremlin, Kreml

Seat of the Russian (formerly Soviet) government in Moscow.


Nomads of Afghanistan.

Kuk Hoe

Korean National Assembly in Seoul.


A granite castle completed in 1916 which serves as summer residence of the President of Finland. Located near Naantali, Varsinais-Sumi Region (Southwest Finland) on the opposite side of Naantalinlahti Bay.

Kumsusan Palace of the Sun

Mausoleum of the ‘eternal’ leaders of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) in Pyongyang.


Homeland of the Kurds.



Concept of secularism, separation of religion and state (French).

Lahore process

Reference to Lahore Declaration of 21 February 1999 issued following meeting between Indian and Pakistani prime ministers in Lahore, Pakistan. They pledged to follow certain procedures regarding tests of ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons and to intensify their efforts to resolve the dispute over Jammu and Kashmir through dialog and ministerial meetings.

Lány Chateau

Summer residence of the President of the Czech Republic in Lány, Kladno District.

laojiao (China)

Non-judicial system of punishment of reeducation through forced labor.

Linkana Palace

Royal palace in Thimphu, Bhutan.

Livadia Palace

Summer retreat of the Russian tsar near Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine, and used for official meetings.


Anti-corruption ombudsman in states of India.

Lok Sabha

Indian parliament (lower house) in New Delhi.

London Club

Informal forum of major international commercial banks, used primarily for private debt rescheduling. Founded in 1976.

Lopez Palace

Official residence of the Uruguayan president in Ascunción.


Building located at 2 Dzerzhinskogo plan in Moscow. During communist period, synonymous with the Soviet secret police and its prison, now headquarters of Federal Counterintelligence Service. Before 1917, seat of All-Russian Insurance Company.


Royal village of the Swazi king, 20 km east of the capital of Mbane.


“Naked officials,” term used in the People’s Republic of China to describe officials who family members have emigrated.



Arabic for “west”; also refers to the western North African region consisting of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.


Iranian parliament in Tehran.


Council, assembly (Arabic).

Majlis al-Shaab

Egyptian parliament in Cairo (i.e., people’s council, Arabic).

Malacañang Palace

Official residence of the Philippine president in Manila.

Mariinsky Palace

Official residence of the Ukrainian president on Grushevs’kogo Mikhayla Boulevard in Kyiv.

maslikhat (Kazakhstan)

Local council.

Maashiq Palace

Presidential residence in the former People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY) (South Yemen) in Aden

mass line (qunzhong luxian, Chinese)

Leadership method of the Communist Party of China (CPC) by Mao Zedong. One-year “mass line” campaign started in June 2013 under Xi Jinping to clean up four undesirable work styles: formalism, bureaucracy, hedonism, and extravagance


Official residence of the French prime minister in Paris. At the end of its park, with a separate entrance, lies  le Pavillon de musique, a hideaway used for discreet talks.

            "Helvetica" Hôtel de Marigny: Official guest house of the French government in Paris.

McMahon Line

Boundary line drawn between British India and Tibet by British Captain Henry McMahon in 1916 but never accepted by a Chinese government.

Merdeka Palace (Istana Merdeka)

Residence of the President of Indonesia in Jakarta. Known as Koningsplein Palace until 1945 in former Batavia.

Middle East Quartet

Initiative started by representatives of the United Nations, European Union, Russian Federation, and the United States of America on 25 October 2001 to obtain a ceasefire after the outbreak of the 2nd Palestinian intifada in September 2000 and continuing attempts to secure a peaceful resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Minsk Group

Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) group set up to settle disputes between states of the former Soviet Union—the Minsk process.

Minsk process

Process of the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) to settle disputes between states of the former Soviet Union, such as Nagorno-Karabakh.

Miraflores Palace

Official residence of the President of Venezuela in Caracas.


Indian Muslims who fled to Pakistan at the time of the partition in 1947, i.e., refugee (Urdu).

Moncloa, la

Seat of the Spanish government in Madrid.

Moneda, la

Official residence of the Chilean president in Santiago.


Japanese ethic of waste not (Japanese).


Family code (Morocco).

most favorite nation (MFN) clause

Obligation of a country to grant all advantages in commerce and trade to another country.


Much criticized quota-based ethnic political system in Iraq, introduced by the United States 2003.

mujahedeen, mujaheddin

Combatant, fighter (Arabic).


Secret police, intelligence service (Arabic).


The leader or Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood (al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin) in Egypt.


Morality or religious police in Saudi Arabia.


naqba, nakba

Arab Palestinian term describing the day before the establishment of the State of Israel (14 May 1948) and consequent loss of their territories (Calamity in Arabic).

Narayanhity Palace

Royal palace of the King of Nepal in Kathmandu.


Austrian and Swiss parliament (lower house).

NATO Ministerial Guidance

Issued by defense ministers of member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) every two years at the regular spring meeting.

Near Abroad

Russian reference to the 14 non-Russian republics succeeding the former constituent Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union.

New World Order#

Vision of the post-Cold War world expressed by US President George Bush on 7 March 1991.

Normandy Four

Representatives of France, Germany, Russia, and Ukraine to resolve the conflict in the eastern region of Donbass, Ukraine (since 6 June 2014). Also Norman format, Norman Quartet

Norman format, Quartet

Talks about implementing Minsk agreement on Ukraine by France, Germany, Russia, and Ukraine.

Northern Triangle [of Central America]

El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.


Manor located 30 minutes west of Moscow in Krylatskoe district by the Rublyovo-Uspenskoye Highway. It serves as official residence of the Russian president.


One Belt, One Road, see Silk Road Economic Belt

Orange Revolution

Reference to use of orange as an identifying color of pro-democracy forces in Ukraine who demonstrated for and elected Viktor Yushchenko President in December 2004.


Hungarian National Assembly in Budapest.

Oslo Agreement

Following secret negotiations in Oslo between Israeli and Palestine Arab representatives, aided by Norway, on 9 September 1993, Israel recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as the Palestine representative and the PLO accepted the right of Israel to exist.


Independence (Central Asian Republics).



The five permanent members of the UN Security Council and Germany (2006).

Pacific Rim countries

China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (ROK), Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan (ROC), and Thailand.

Palácio de Belém

Residence of the President of Portugal on Calcada da Ajuda in Lisbon.

Palacio Miraflores

Official residence of the Venezuelan president in Caracas.

Palacio Moncloa

Official residence of the Spanish prime minister in Madrid.

Palacio Narino

Official residence of the Colombian president in Bogotá.

Palacio Quemado (Burnt Palace)

Traditional residence of the President of Bolivia in La Paz

Palais Bourbon

Building housing the French National Assembly in Paris.

Palais Schaumburg#

Former official residence of the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany in Bonn.

Palazzo Chigi

Residence of Italian prime minister in Rome.

Palazzo Montecitorio

Building housing the Chamber of Deputies in Rome.

Panch Sheel

Five principles of peaceful coexistence (India). Agreed to by China and India concerning Chinese sovereignty in Tibet on 20 April 1954:

            (1) Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty;

            (2) Mutual non-aggression;

            (3) Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs;

            (4) Equality and mutual benefit; and

            (5) Peaceful coexistence.

Peace Palace

Home of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague, Netherlands.

Peacock Throne#

Reference to the Shah of Iran before 1979.


Building housing the US Defense Department in Arlington VA.


Russian term for restructuring. Essential part of policy of economic and political reforms, first introduced by Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachov in 1985.

Phoenix Park

Location of the official residence of Ireland’s president in Dublin.


See red.

Pink Revolution

Reference to use of pink as an identifying color of anti-government voters in Georgia who demonstrated  successfully against President Edvard Shevardnadze and ousted him from office in November 2003.

Piños, los

Official residence of the Mexican president in Mexico City.

Place Vendôme

Location of the French justice ministry in Paris.

Planalto Palace

Official residence of the Brazilian president in Brasília.

political violence

Use or threat of physical harm in political conflicts.

Prague Spring#

Period of democratizing socialism or practicing “socialism with a human face” between January and 20 August 1968 when Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces invade the Czecho-Slovak Socialist Republic (CSSR) to suppress the reform movement and arrest its leaders.

Pretoria Mansion

Official residence of the South African president in Pretoria.

rime Minister’s Questions

British parliamentary tradition of providing members of the House of Commons an opportunity on every Wednesday in session at noon to pose questions to the Prime Minister.

Puzzle Palace

Nickname for the US Defense Department in the Pentagon building.



Indo-Pacific regional consulting group of senior officials of Australia, India, Japan and the United States of America since 12 March 2021.


The great leader of Pakistan, i.e. Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948).

Quai d’Orsay

French foreign ministry in Paris.

Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui

National People’s Congress of China in Beijing.


Contemporary group working to obtain peace in the Near East: European Union (EU), Russia, United Nations (UN), and the United States of America (USA).


Official residence of the Italian president in Rome.


Raghadan Palace

Royal palace of the King of Jordan in Amman.

Rashtrapati Bhavan

Official residence of the Indian president on top of Raisina Hill in New Delhi since 1950. Formerly known as [British] Viceroy’s House since 1931.

raskol (Papua New Guinea)

Urban youth gang


Communist, social-democratic, socialist, left-wing, also pink; see also Red states (US).

Red Chamber

The Senate of Canada.

Red states

US states in which citizens vote predominantly for the Republican Party; see also Blue states.

Republika Srpska

Serbian Republic (in Bosnia and Herzegovina).


Indonesian five year-development plan (1st: 1960/70-1973/74).

Rideau Hall

Officially Government House in Ottawa serves as seat of Canada’s monarch (Queen of the United Kingdom) and her representative, the Governor General of Canada.


Swedish parliament in Stockholm.

Roadmap to Peace

Plan for a final and comprehensive settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict developed by the Quartet and presented to Israel and Palestine on 30 April 2003. The plan has clear phases, timelines, and benchmarks and involves reciprocal steps by the two parties in the political, security, economic, and humanitarian fields.

rogue countries#

US Government term used for Cuba, Iran, Libya, North Korea, and Syria. Term changed to “countries of concern.” See also “Axis of Evil.”


Burmese Muslims.


Official residence of the Prime Minister of Sweden in Stockholm.



Parliament of Latvia in Riga.

Sagerska hus

Office of the Swedish prime minister in Stockholm.


West African countries located at the edge of the Sahara desert (“edge” Arabic).


Saharan native.

SAMOA Pathway      

SIDS [small island developing states] Accelerated Modalities of Action, adopted 1-4 September 2014 in Apia by the third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, to achieve sustainable development.

Sanaa Coalition

Group formed by Ethiopia, Sudan, and Yemen in 2003 to strengthen relations among the three countries.


Non-violent resistance as advocated by Mahatma Gandhi. See Gandhi principles of non-violence.

Second World

The former communist countries of Europe, Asia and Cuba.


Polish lower house of parliament in Warsaw.

Seven Sisters#

The most important international oil companies: British Petroleum, Chevron, Exxon, Gulf, Mobil, Shell, and Texaco. Now the Four Sisters.

Shaab Palace, al-

People’s Palace in Damascus (Arabic).


Iranian Revolutionary Guard (Farsi).

Shanghai Five

The founders of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO): China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan.

Shangri-La Dialog

Reference to Asia Security Summits

Sheetal Niwas

Official residence of the President of Nepal in Kathmandu


Japanese House of Representatives in Tokyo.

Silk Road Economic Belt

Initiative of the People’s Republic of China of September 2013 to revive the old Silk Road to connect with Eurasia to advance investment and trade. Also Belt and Road or One Belt, One Road.

Sirte I, II

I: Declaration made by the Organization of African Unity (OAU, meeting in September 1999 in Sirte, Libya, to establish the African Union (AU).

            II: Declaration of founding of the African Union (AU) on 2 March 2001 in Sirte.


The 16 NATO nations and Russia.

Slavic Four

Informal reference to Belarus, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine.

Smolenskaya Square

Location of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Moscow.


Customary criteria for sovereign statehood:

            (1) territory,

            (2) population,

            (3) recognition of treaty obligations, and

            (4) control over territory and population.

Stockholm process

International year-long effort initiated by the Swedish government to suggest ways to strengthen the capacity to implement targeted sanctions by the United States and member states.


Stormont Castle in Belfast serving as seat of the administration of the British Secretary of State for Northern Ireland.


Norwegian parliament in Oslo.

Straka Academy (Strakova akademie)

Seat of government of the Czech Republic on the left bank of Vlatava River on Malá Strana in Prague.

Sublime Porte#

The Ottoman Empire and its government in Constantinople. Reference to the “gate of Felicity” (Bâbüssaâde) of Topkapi Palace.


Soviet Union and the United States of America (1945-1990).



Space person, i.e., astronaut (Chinese)


The Prime Minister of Ireland.

Third World

The less developed countries.

“Three Don’ts”#

Admonition of Hu Jintao, President of China, made on 18 December 2008 “As long as we don’t waver, don’t slack off, and don’t get sidetracked (bu zheteng), and as long as we firmly push forward reform and opening up … we are certain to be able to successfully realize this grand blueprint [of the reform] and achieve the goals we are striving for.”

"Three Represents” (san ge dai biao)#

Current official Chinese doctrine to harmonize Marxism with the free market. Enunciated by former President and Part General Secretary Jiang Zemin in February 2000. The Chinese Communist Party (CPC) must (1) Represent the most advanced productive forces, including private business; (2) Represent the most advanced culture; and (3) Represent fundamental interest of the broad masses, not only a revolutionary party.

trade rounds

International meetings to prepare and agree on tariffs and rules of dispute settlement and trade which led to approval of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1947 and the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1975:

            1st round/Geneva Round        1947 in Geneva (12 countries)

            2nd round                                1949 in Annecy, France (13 countries)

            3rd round                                 1951 in Torquay, UK (38 countries)

            4th round/Geneva Round        1956 in Geneva (26 countries)

            5th round/Dillon Round           1960-1961 in Geneva (26 countries)

            6th round/Kennedy Round      1964-1967 in Geneva (62 countries)

            7th round/Tokyo Round          1973-1979 in Geneva (102 countries)

            8th round/Uruguay Round       1986-1994 in Geneva (123 countries)

            9th round/Doha Round            2002-2015 in Doha, Qatar (144 countries) (failed)


Tropical colorful American fruit-eating bird (Portuguese, Tupi). Used in Brazil to refer to a member of the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB).


The Big Four, the Federal Republic of Germany and the former German Democratic Republic [German reunification].


Informal group of foreign ministers of current, previous, and future presiding governments in the European Union.


Former residence of governors of the Cape Colony which became the official residence of the South African President in Cape Town.


Ukimet Uiy

House of Government in Astana.


Agreement or pact, also network or system. Frequently used by current Polish government leaders to identify the “enemy”: Former communists and secret service officials but also some members of the liberal elite as well as businessmen (Polish).


Velvet Revolution#

Bloodless and peaceful student demonstrations in Prague on 17 November 1989 force the communist leadership to resign. End of the communist regime in Czechoslovakia.


German term to describe effort to cope and face up to Germany’s criminal acts under its Nazi government.

Verkhovna Rada

Parliament of Ukraine in Kiev.

Vietnam syndrome

Normally used to describe reluctance to intervene in foreign conflicts shown by Americans as a result of the disappointment over the outcome of the Viet Nam War.

Villa Hammerschmidt#

Former residence of the Federal President of Germany in Bonn (1949-1994).

Vouli ton Ellinon

Greek Chamber of Deputies in Athens.


Wall, the

Reference to the former Berlin Wall (see entry) and to the wall erected by Israel separating it from Palestine.

Wall Street

New York financial district.

Weimar Triangle

Informal cooperation incl. summit meetings, between France, Germany, and Poland.


British Parliament in London.

White House, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue

Official residence of the American president at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC. The Oval Office is the office of the American president in the West Wing of the White House.

            Blair House: Official guest house of the American president, located on

            Pennsylvania Avenue, across from the White House.

            Camp David: Official retreat of the American president located near Thurmont,


Mt Weather: Alternate secure underground location for indispensable  and top officials to insure continuity of government (COG) in case of attack or natural disaster at Berryville, Virginia, about 48 miles west of the capital. Currently used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).


Main offices of the British government in London.

10 Downing Street: Official residence of the British prime minister and place of cabinet meetings in London.

            Chequers: Country home of the British prime minister in Buckinghamshire since 1921.

White House

Seat and official residence of the President of the United States of America at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, District of Columbia (DC) 20500.

White House Situation Room (WHSR)

The US national nerve center is located in the West Basement of The White House. It contains a soundproof conference room surrounded on three sides by two small offices, multiple work stations, computers and communications equipment. Staff is composed of approximately 30 personnel, organized around five Watch Teams monitoring international events around the clock. The Situation Room was established by the president after the Cuban Bay of Pigs operation in 1961. (Source: Inside The White House Situation Room, by Michael Donley, Cornelius O’Leary and John Montgomery. Washington DC: Studies in Intelligence, May 1997, pp. 7-13.)


Location of German Foreign Office in Berlin before 1933. The Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany is located at Werderscher Markt 1, 10117 Berlin.

World Economic Forum (WEF)

Week-long economic discussion held annually (January/February) in Davos Switzerland and attended by prominent political and economic world leaders. Founded in 1970 by Professor Klaus Schwab of Geneva.

World Risk Index (WRI)

Disaster risk index launched by the UN University Institute for Environment and Human Security in Bonn, Germany, in September 2011 defining risk as the interaction between a natural hazard and the vulnerability of a community. Based on four components and 28 variables:

            1 Exposure to a natural hazard;

            2 Susceptibility (i.e., likelihood of damage to economic, infrastructure, nutrition,

            and housing conditions);

            3 Capacity to cope (state of governance, disaster preparedness, early warning

             systems, medical services, and social and material security levels);

            4 Adaption strategies.



Originally the concept of an ideal society that provides well for its citizens. Adopted by Deng Xiaoping as “a thousand consumers bloom,” the beginning of economic liberalization (Chinese).


Yang di-Peruan Agong

Malaysian head of state elected from hereditary rulers of 13 states.


In Europe, a liberal party or a member thereof.


Zarzuela Palace

Preferred  residence of the Spanish king, located outside Madrid near the El Pardo Mountains, about 8 km northwest of the center of the capital.


Headquarters of the central government and residence of the Communist party leader in Beijing.


Clan, horde (Kazakhstan)




# No longer in existence.

Names of official residences are included because of their frequent use as synonyms for certain governments and their officials (e.g., Quai d’Orsay for the French foreign ministry in Paris).


Sources: Government and press announcements, IO database, Le Point, United Nations (UN).


Completion: Includes information dated 25 January 2022 or earlier. Completed in January 2022.


(Replacing International and Political Terms, Global Survey, Vol. 49, No. 508, November 2019, 20 pp.)






Published by The International Observer of Washington DC USA